Advanced Biochemistry

  • Membranes – signal transduction. Signaling pathways coupled with G proteins.
    • cΑΜΡ pathway, protein kinase Α.
    • cΑΜΡ receptors (Epac), activation protein kinase Β (Akt).
    • Phosphoinisitide pathway, protein kinase C.
    • Ca2+ signalling
    • Tyrosine kinases, small G proteins, ΡΙ-3 kinase, protein kinase B activation (Akt).
    • ΜΑΡ kinases ( ERK1,2, JNKs, p38).
    • ΝΟ signaling pathways, cGMP, protein kinase G.
    • Lateral compartmentalization and function of the cytoplasmic membrane: eisosomes and transmembrane transporters
    • Transcription factors (CREB, CREM, NF-kB, AP-1, STAT) and their activation.
    • Prostaglandins.
    • Steroid hormones.
    • Signaling pathways of main cytokines and growth factors, IL-1, TNF-α, TGF-β (SMAD proteins), PDGF, EGF, FGF.
  • Interaction of ECM and cells.
  • Integration of metabolism in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Control mechanisms of metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
  • Protein Structure - Experimental and Theoretical Approaches.


Biochemical Analysis – Clinical Biochemistry

  • Liquid chromatography (gel, ion-exchange, affinity). Theory, applications.
  • HPLC: Theory, techniques, applications. GC: Applications. SFC: Theory, applications.
  • Electrophoresis: Theory and techniques. Capillary electrophoresis: Applications.
  • Enzyme in analysis: Chemistry and applications of enzymes, biosensors.
  • Radionucleids in analysis.
  • Immunoenzymatic analytical methods: Theory, techniques, applications.
  • Automatisation in analysis, Modern auto-analyzers,
  • Methods selection criteria - Development of analytical methods.
  • Selection of methods for the analysis of biological fluids.
  • Basic Physiology (nervous system, liver, gallbladder, pancreas).
  • Biochemistry of the main organs and endocrine glands.
  • Control of organs and endocrine glands functions.
  • Evaluation of results.
  • Analysis of metabolites, drugs and toxic substances.
  • Chemical ecology: Applications of bioactive secondary metabolites of natural origin.
  • Methods of analysis and study of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates.


Literature Review and Research Methodology

  • Searching, recording and presenting the bibliography related to the postgraduate diploma thesis.
  • A series of lectures on contemporary issues of specialization and issues related to the development of communication skills and IT skills.
  • Bibliographic overview of the research field of the subject of Postgraduate Diploma Thesis and its public presentation.

Molecular Pharmacology - Immunology

  • Effect of drugs to enzymes (binding interactions, competitive and non-competitive inhibitors, allosteric inhibitors), the catalytic role of enzymes, enzyme regulation, isoenzymes, pharmaceutical applications of inhibitors (inhibitors for enzymes, microbes, viruses and body enzymes).
  • Effect of drug to receptors (the role of receptor, neurotransmitters and hormones, design of agonists and antagonists, partial and reverse agonists, desensitization and sensitization, tolerance and dependence, cytoplasmic receptors, types and subtypes of receptors).
  • Structure and functions of nucleic acids (DNA structure, DNA-acting drugs, RNA structure, RNA-acting drugs, drugs related to nucleic acids and their structural units, molecular biology and genetic engineering).
  • Adrenergic nervous system (adrenergic system, adrenergic receptors and transducers, biosynthesis and metabolism of cateholamines, neurotransmission, drug targets, adrenergic site of binding, structure – biological activity relations, adrenergic agonists, antagonists of agrenergic receptor, drugs acting to adrenergic transduction).
  • Opium-related analgetics (morphine, morphine analogues development, analgetic receptors, agonists and antagonists, encephalines and endorphines, receptors mechanisms)
  • Innate immunity-Complement.
    • RNAi as a defensive mechanism of insects to viruses.
  • Acquired immunity (humoral immunity, cellular immunity).
    • Antibodies, antibodies classes, structure, production (Β-lymphocytes, clone selection theory), immune system memory, vaccines, monoclonal antibody production, antibodies biosynthesis.
    • Immunogens, antigens, antigen determinants, epitopes.
    • Antigen-antibody complex. Antigen presenting cells.
    • Proteins of the major innumohistocompatibility complex (MHC-I, MHC-II).
    • Τ-lymphocytes (Τh1 and Th2 help cells, cytotoxic Tc cells), Τ-cells receptors.
    • MHC-I / Tc and MHC-II / Τh complexes.
    • Biosynthesis of Τ-cells receptors and MHC proteins.


 Molecular & Cellular Biology – Molecular Biotechnology

  • DNA organisation.
  • Annealing and hybridisation.
  • Eukaryotic genome transcription and translation.
  • DNA mapping.
  • Gene structure and function.
  • DNA replication in viruses, eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.
  • Strain selection, genetic recombination.
  • Protoplasts fusion, techniques for isolation of DNA sequences (restriction enzymes).
  • cDNA, gene libraries.
  • DNA vectors (plasmids, cosmids, phages).
  • Cloning vectors, sequences vectors, expression vectors.
  • Methods of integration, transport and recombination of genetic information.
  • The baculovirus expression system: Generation of recombinant viral vectors by homologous recombination and translocation.
  • Analysis and isolation of recombinant clones.
  • Cloning systems and applications in Biotechnology.
  • Enzymes technology (immobilization of enzymes, kinetics of immobilized enzymes, reactions and kinetics in biphasic systems, reverse enzyme reactions, artificial enzymes).
  • Industrial applications (Manufacture of dairy products, alcoholic beverages, fruit juices, single-cell protein, industrial fermentations: alcohol, organic acids and aminoacids, pharmaceuticals, baking, syrups, processing of wastes: biofertilizers, methane).
  • Microscopic observation techniques.
  • Cytotoxicity-Cytostatic Calculation Techniques.
  • Cellular aging as a target of anti-aging pharmacological approaches.
  • Flow cytometry.


MSc Thesis I: Launch of Research Activities for MSc Thesis (PostGraduate Diploma Work)

A novel research project is being carried out by each one of the postgraduate student in one or more of the research laboratories of the researchers involved in the programme. This is followed by a presentation in public of the preliminary research results obtained in the form of a powerpoint presentation.



MSc Thesis II: Completion of the research project, Writing and Defense of the Thesis 

  • Continuing and completing the research activity of the postgraduate student.
  • Writing of the completed experimental results in the form of a postgraduate thesis, Presentation in public and examination by the three-member Examination Board.


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